Dr. Moshe Dudai
The injury happens to athletes in all field of sport who weren’t readied enough as far as their physical fitness, but is especially frequent among soccer, rugby and ice hockey players.
As opposed to ‘normal’ hernia, in which a hole is formed in the abdominal wall that though it the contents of the abdominal cavity is spilled, in Sportsman Henria many small rips are formed, plus stretching of the muscles. This situation causes weakness, limpness and pain in the lower abdominal and groin area.
The pain appears during running, acceleration, change in running direction or kicking a ball. Pain might also appear during sneezing, coughing or changing position during sleep. In the initial stages there isn’t a meaningful disturbance to daily activities, but if the injury isn’t handled the damage expands and pain will appear in everyday activity as well.
In order to fix the rapture the surgeon lays a specialised net on top of the tear, making sure the diameter of the net is a few centimetres wider than the tear itself, and staples the net to the abdominal wall. The reason behind using a net rather than stitching up the tear is similar to the reason that when we have a tear in a pair of jeans we use a patch and not stitch the pants themselves; the fabric won’t hold and will tear again. So is the abdominal wall. Stitches simply won’t hold, will cave to the pressure and the rapture will return in magnitude. The net holds the abdominal wall in its place, prevents puling-pressure and is extremely durable to any effort.
The advantages of the endoscopic method are many, and immense. By not opening the body during surgery the chances for post-surgery infection are reduced by many folds and the trauma for the body is minimized as well. The hospitalisation and recovery periods are significantly reduced. The scars that remain due to surgery are almost invisible. The return to normal daily activity and full athletic protocol.
About Dr. Dudai
Dr. Moshe Dudai; assistant professor of surgery in Uniformed Services University in Bethesda USA, graduate of the Hebrew University Medical School in Jerusalem, residency in general surgery in Hadassa University Hospital in Jerusalem. Dr. Dudai has the richest experience in Israel in hernia laparoscopy surgery. His expertise in hernia go back more than two decades o his time as head of the surgical ward in Bikur Holim hospital.
Dr. Dudai is among the pioneers of laparoscopy in Israel and was the first to operate hernia using the laparoscopy technique; he has contributed greatly to the honing and excelling of the laparoscopy technique for fixing hernia all around the world. He is an active member of The American Society of Hernia, a founding member of The International Society for Laparoscopy Hernia Surgery, participating and lecturing in conventions of the above mentioned societies. Dr. Dudai was a part of the international team that wrote the 2011 guidelines for fixing hernia by laparoscopy and wrote himself the chapter on diagnosing and treating Sportsman Hernia.
His expertise in laparoscopy surgery lead him to be elected as the president on the European Society for Video Surgery, the video editor of a leading medical laparoscopy publication and the article critic in additional medical laparoscopy publication. In addition, he lead an advanced laparoscopy project in the National Medical Center of the US Navy in Bethesda where he was a special advisor. Dr. Dudai was also the head of the Laparoscopy and Obesity Units of Misgav Ladach hospital.
Dr. Dudai is an active member of more than a dozen professional surgical societies in Israel and abroad including the Sports Medicine Society. He was among the first in the world to develop and implement the laparoscopy technique for treating Sportsman Hernia and other groin and abdominal muscles sports injuries. He successfully treated hundreds of athletes.
Dr. Dudai is also an inventor and entrepreneur of medical surgical laparoscopy instruments for treating hernia.
More than 20 years of experience in treating hernia using the laparoscopy technique and hundreds of patients with excellent results are Dr. Dudai business card.
NEW APPROACHES TO SPORTSMAN HERNIA; LOGICAL INTEGRATION BETWEEN SURGERY AND MUSCLES SPORT REHABILITATION
Moshe Dudai MD FACS, Hernia Excellence, Ramat Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Sport Groin injuries are very common among professional Athletes, 40% of Sucker and Hokey players and 10% of all the Athletes, but lastly become common also amongst sport active people. In part is treated by conservative treatment and in part by Endoscopic surgery. Making the diagnosis for selecting the right treatment it is a challenge but lastly become more feasible after publishing the new guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Sportsman Hernia. In some of the cases there is more complexes injury that will need combined Endoscopic surgery with conservative treatments.
In 1980 Gilmore was the first to describe the sport trauma to the groin and to the posterior wall and defined the pathology of the "Posterior Wall Deficiency" (PWD). He developed an anterior tissue repair with good early results but late high failure, had the honor by named the pathology “Gilmore’s Groin”' but later on transferred to “Sportsman Hernia” (SH). On the other hand Sport Injury to the Pubic Bone, Symphysis Pubis, Rectus Muscles insertion and Adductor tendons insertions to the pubis is known for years. Different terminologies describe the injury like “Osteitis Pubis”, “Rectal-Adductor syn.” and later “Athletes Pubalgia” (AP) with the description of the pathology as "Pubic Bone Stress Injury" (PBSI). In spite of that, for many years no fully understanding and clear definition of the different pathologies lead to confusion on diagnosis and treatments. Lastly definition and differentiation of the pathologies was established and described in the "Guidelines for Diagnosis and treatment of Sportsman Hernia" as part of International Endo Hernia guidelines published at 2011 in the Journal Surgical Endoscopy (1) and in the recent update (2).
There are well defined two kinds of Sport Groin Injury (SGI); the Sportsman Hernia (SH) with the pathology of Posterior Wall Deficiency (PWD) and the Athletes Pubalgia (AP) with the pathology of Pubic Bone Stress Injury (PBSI). The different criteria for diagnosis and treatment of this two SGI were clearly described in the Guiltiness for Sportsman Hernia. In general, the symptoms of SH are more lateral in the groin, sharp pain radiated to the inner tight aspect with neurologic characteristic that appear during sport activities and relapse later on rest. Typically the pain will recurred whenever the athlete will return to sport activities. The symptoms of AP are more central, dull continues pain with inflammatory characteristic that continue after the sport activities stops and response to steroidal and NSAI drugs and physiotherapy. The two injuries have the same etiology and pathogenesis; Muscles strength was not build up appropriate for the level of sport activity performed. Bio-mechanical Imbalance of muscles force activity on the two opposite side of the pubic bones leads to the injuries. The background pathology for SH is sport trauma causing small and irreversible tears and weakening of the posterior inguinal wall facial sheets and the adjusted tendons, the Transversalis Fascia and the Conjoint Tendon. This is leading to loss of the integrity of the posterior inguinal wall with prominent outwardly bulging during sport activities, causing strains of the nerves and pain. In the AP there is a stress injury with edema and inflammatory process in the Symphysis Pubis with posterior disc herniation, Pubic bone marrow edema and ligaments strain of the inserted tendons muscles; Rectus, Pyramidal and Adductors. There are clear and typical different findings by anamnesis and physical examination for SH versus AP. Recently imaging examinations demonstrate both typical pathologies; High resolution Dynamic US can demonstrate the SH PW Bulging pathology and MRI the AP PBSI inflammatory edematous pathology (6).
According to the SH guiltiness and the recent update, surgery is superior to conservative treatment for SH –Level 1A of evidence- (3) and Endoscopic Total Extra Peritoneal (TEP) retro- pubic and posterior wall mesh placement is the recommended treatment for SH with excellent results - Level 1A of evidence- (4,5). Specific surgical maneuvers adapted for the SH pathology have to be add to the mesh placement, including nerve entrapment release but categorically not to divide! On the other hand only conservative treatment of Active Isometric Weight Bering Exercises (AIWBE) is recommended for AP when quit all recovered in 8-12 weeks –Level 1A of evidence, in no case Adductor Tenotomy can be done!
In our study we found that good part of the athletes are presenting with findings of both types of SGI with different level of severity. SH is persistently bilateral (Bill) but PBSI expressed in different level of severity. We classified PBSI for grade 1 up to 5; 1 for muscle involvement in one side of the PB without bone involvement and gradual up to 5 for SP and bone marrow edema with both sides muscles involvement. We realized that the SH was the first injury and because the athlete continue with extreme sport activities on top of the SH injury, others PBSI be caused. We worked in cooperation with physiotherapist and sport physiologist to build up a therapeutic program that is a combination of Endoscopic TEP posterior wall repair and reinforcement by mesh combined with Muscles Sport Rehabilitation (MSR) (AIWBE for peripheral muscles and Core Muscles Stabilizing Exercise CMSE). After examining different sequence combination of treatment, we had found that the more effective and shorter recovery combination is starting with the surgery following by MSR. Performing first the repair of the loss injured posterior wall giving strength to the groin that act as an anchor for the active forced healing process of the muscles and tendons. Since January 2014 we had operated on 42 Sportsman with diagnosis of Bill. SH & PBSI grade 2-5. They were treated by Bill Endo TEP, Nerve entrapment release and posterior wall reinforcement by mesh placement followed by MSR of IAWBE and CMSE. After 4-7weeks all were recovery to the level of previous sport activity and more!
This entity and treatment is applicable as well for non-athlete patients performing sport or heavy activities suffering from Ch. Groin Pain without palpable Hernia.
Athletes suffered from SGI have to be diagnosed correctly of the subtype injury, SH or AP, for selecting the surgical or the conservative way of treatment. Some of the athletes having both SH and AP, in these sportsman combined treatments of Endoscopy with MSR has to be tailored according to the severity of the PBSI injuries. If the right treatment is selected the results are excellent and in shorter time
1. Guideline Recommendation for Sportsman Hernia – Diagnosis and Treatment
Dudai M, Conde S.M, Bittnerr R.; Surg Endosc. (2011): May; 25: 2834-2843
2. Update of Guideline Recommendation for Sportsman Hernia – Diagnosis and Treatment
Conde SM/ Dudai M, Bittner R; Surg Endosc (2014): Nov; (DOI) 10.1007/s00464-014-3917-8
Laparoscopic surgery for chronic groin pain in athletes is more effective than nonoperative treatment: a randomized clinical trial with magnetic resonance imaging of 60 patients with sportsman's hernia (athletic pubalgia). Paajanen H, Brinck T, Hermunen H, Airo I. Surgery. (2011) : 150:99-107. (1B)
4. Successful endoscopic treatment of chronic groin pain in athletes.
van Veen RN, de Baat P, Heijboer MP, Kazemier G, Punt BJ, Dwarkasing RS, Bonjer HJ, van Eijck CH, Rotterdam Nederland, Surg Endosc.(2007): Feb;21(2):189-93..
5. Totally extraperitoneal endoscopic (TEP) treatment of sportsman's hernia.
Paajanen H, Syvähuoko I, Airo I. ; Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. (2004): Aug;14(4):215-8.
Computed tomography scan diagnosis of occult hernia. Garvey JF; Hernia (2012): 16:307-314.(2B)
Moshe Dudai MD FACS,
3 Louis Pasture ST. Tel Aviv 68036 Israel